Several months ago I interviewed former SEC Chairman Harvey Pitt about options backdating for my MoneyMasters video program. Pitt is a strong critic of backdating. He argues it is outright fraud.
Recently, I've been spending a lot of time studying up on Warren Buffett. Buffett is one of America's most admired CEOs. He has a clean reputation. He has been a vocal critic of executive greed. He believes many CEOs are overpaid. He also opposes the use of options to compensate executives.
Berkshire Hathaway, Buffett's company, has long been criticized for poor corporate governance practices. In particular, the board long suffered from a distinct lack of independence. Berkshire has a greater number of independent directors today, but this is only because of new NYSE listing requirements.
Despite poor governance, Berkshire Hathaway has been an outstanding stock. It has gained more than 20% annually for several decades. Indeed, there isn't any convincing evidence that companies with independent boards turn in better stock price performance than companies whose boards are not independent. However, proponents of independence say companies are less likely to end up in some sort of scandal when the board is independent.
But a new study produced by three professors argues that even independent directors may be subject to temptation. According to this study, many outside directors profited from options backdating. Lucian Bebchuk, Yaniv Grinstein, and Urs Peyer claim that 1,400 outside directors from 460 companies benefited from options backdating between 1996 to 2005. Their study indicates that the problem is less common at firms that have a majority of independent directors. But board independence provides no guarantee against options backdating.
The moral of the story is that investing is a risky game. The company's business model may succeed or it may fail. Shareholders can't even be certain the board and executives will always act in their best interests. Even independent directors may choose to enrich themselves at the expense of shareholders. The only way you can be sure that a company you own is being run to your full benefit is to run it yourself.